Generator

Glossary of Generator

# generator function

>>> def gen_func():
...     yield 5566
...
>>> gen_func
<function gen_func at 0x1019273a>

# generator
#
# calling the generator function returns a generator

>>> g = gen_func()
>>> g
<generator object gen_func at 0x101238fd>
>>> next(g)
5566
>>> next(g)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
StopIteration

# generator expression
#
# generator expression evaluating directly to a generator

>>> g = (x for x in range(2))
>>> g
<generator object <genexpr> at 0x10a9c191>
>>> next(g)
0
>>> next(g)
1
>>> next(g)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
StopIteration

Produce value via generator

>>> from __future__ import print_function
>>> def prime(n):
...     p = 2
...     while n > 0:
...         for x in range(2, p):
...             if p % x == 0:
...                 break
...         else:
...             yield p
...             n -= 1
...         p += 1
...
>>> p = prime(3)
>>> next(p)
2
>>> next(p)
3
>>> next(p)
5
>>> next(p)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
StopIteration
>>> for x in prime(5):
...     print(x, end=" ")
...
2 3 5 7 11 >>>

Unpacking Generators

# PEP 448

# unpacking inside a list

>>> g1 = (x for x in range(3))
>>> g2 = (x**2 for x in range(2))
>>> [1, *g1, 2, *g2]
[1, 0, 1, 2, 2, 0, 1]
>>> # equal to
>>> g1 = (x for x in range(3))
>>> g2 = (x**2 for x in range(2))
>>> [1] + list(g1) + [2] + list(g2)
[1, 0, 1, 2, 2, 0, 1]

# unpacking inside a set

>>> g = (x for x in [5, 5, 6, 6])
>>> {*g}
{5, 6}

# unpacking to variables

>>> g = (x for x in range(3))
>>> a, b, c = g
>>> print(a, b, c)
0 1 2
>>> g = (x for x in range(6))
>>> a, b, *c, d = g
>>> print(a, b, d)
0 1 5
>>> print(c)
[2, 3, 4]

# unpacking inside a function

>>> print(*(x for x in range(3)))
0 1 2

Implement Iterable object via generator

>>> from __future__ import print_function
>>> class Count(object):
...     def __init__(self, n):
...         self._n = n
...     def __iter__(self):
...         n = self._n
...         while n > 0:
...             yield n
...             n -= 1
...     def __reversed__(self):
...         n = 1
...         while n <= self._n:
...             yield n
...             n += 1
...
>>> for x in Count(5):
...     print(x, end=" ")
...
5 4 3 2 1 >>>
>>> for x in reversed(Count(5)):
...     print(x, end=" ")
...
1 2 3 4 5 >>>

Send message to generator

>>> def spam():
...     msg = yield
...     print("Message:", msg)
...
>>> try:
...     g = spam()
...     # start generator
...     next(g)
...     # send message to generator
...     g.send("Hello World!")
... except StopIteration:
...     pass
...
Message: Hello World!

yield from expression

# delegating gen do nothing(pipe)
>>> def subgen():
...     try:
...         yield 9527
...     except ValueError:
...         print("get value error")
...
>>> def delegating_gen():
...     yield from subgen()
...
>>> g = delegating_gen()
>>> try:
...     next(g)
...     g.throw(ValueError)
... except StopIteration:
...     print("gen stop")
...
9527
get value error
gen stop

# yield from + yield from
>>> import inspect
>>> def subgen():
...     yield from range(5)
...
>>> def delegating_gen():
...     yield from subgen()
...
>>> g = delegating_gen()
>>> inspect.getgeneratorstate(g)
'GEN_CREATED'
>>> next(g)
0
>>> inspect.getgeneratorstate(g)
'GEN_SUSPENDED'
>>> g.close()
>>> inspect.getgeneratorstate(g)
'GEN_CLOSED'

yield (from) EXPR return RES

>>> def average():
...     total = .0
...     count = 0
...     avg = None
...     while True:
...         val = yield
...         if not val:
...             break
...         total += val
...         count += 1
...         avg = total / count
...     return avg
...
>>> g = average()
>>> next(g) # start gen
>>> g.send(3)
>>> g.send(5)
>>> try:
...     g.send(None)
... except StopIteration as e:
...     ret = e.value
...
>>> ret
4.0

# yield from EXP return RES
>>> def subgen():
...     yield 9527
...
>>> def delegating_gen():
...     yield from subgen()
...     return 5566
...
>>> try:
...     g = delegating_gen()
...     next(g)
...     next(g)
... except StopIteration as _e:
...     print(_e.value)
...
9527
5566

Generate sequences

# get a list via generator

>>> def chain():
...     for x in 'ab':
...         yield x
...     for x in range(3):
...         yield x
...
>>> a = list(chain())
>>> a
['a', 'b', 0, 1, 2]

# equivalent to

>>> def chain():
...     yield from 'ab'
...     yield from range(3)
...
>>> a = list(chain())
>>> a
['a', 'b', 0, 1, 2]

What RES = yield from EXP actually do?

# ref: pep380
>>> def subgen():
...     for x in range(3):
...         yield x
...
>>> EXP = subgen()
>>> def delegating_gen():
...     _i = iter(EXP)
...     try:
...         _y = next(_i)
...     except StopIteration as _e:
...         RES = _e.value
...     else:
...         while True:
...             _s = yield _y
...             try:
...                 _y = _i.send(_s)
...             except StopIteration as _e:
...                 RES = _e.value
...                 break
...
>>> g = delegating_gen()
>>> next(g)
0
>>> next(g)
1
>>> next(g)
2

# equivalent to
>>> EXP = subgen()
>>> def delegating_gen():
...     RES = yield from EXP
...
>>> g = delegating_gen()
>>> next(g)
0
>>> next(g)
1

for _ in gen() simulate yield from

>>> def subgen(n):
...     for x in range(n): yield x
...
>>> def gen(n):
...     yield from subgen(n)
...
>>> g = gen(3)
>>> next(g)
0
>>> next(g)
1

# equal to

>>> def gen(n):
...     for x in subgen(n): yield x
...
>>> g = gen(3)
>>> next(g)
0
>>> next(g)
1

Check generator type

>>> from types import GeneratorType
>>> def gen_func():
...     yield 5566
...
>>> g = gen_func()
>>> isinstance(g, GeneratorType)
True
>>> isinstance(123, GeneratorType)
False

Check Generator State

>>> import inspect
>>> def gen_func():
...     yield 9527
...
>>> g = gen_func()
>>> inspect.getgeneratorstate(g)
'GEN_CREATED'
>>> next(g)
9527
>>> inspect.getgeneratorstate(g)
'GEN_SUSPENDED'
>>> g.close()
>>> inspect.getgeneratorstate(g)
'GEN_CLOSED'

Simple compiler

# David Beazley - Generators: The Final Frontier

import re
import types
from collections import namedtuple

tokens = [
    r'(?P<NUMBER>\d+)',
    r'(?P<PLUS>\+)',
    r'(?P<MINUS>-)',
    r'(?P<TIMES>\*)',
    r'(?P<DIVIDE>/)',
    r'(?P<WS>\s+)']

Token = namedtuple('Token', ['type', 'value'])
lex = re.compile('|'.join(tokens))

def tokenize(text):
    scan = lex.scanner(text)
    gen = (Token(m.lastgroup, m.group())
            for m in iter(scan.match, None) if m.lastgroup != 'WS')
    return gen


class Node:
    _fields = []
    def __init__(self, *args):
        for attr, value in zip(self._fields, args):
            setattr(self, attr, value)

class Number(Node):
    _fields = ['value']

class BinOp(Node):
    _fields = ['op', 'left', 'right']

def parse(toks):
    lookahead, current = next(toks, None), None

    def accept(*toktypes):
        nonlocal lookahead, current
        if lookahead and lookahead.type in toktypes:
            current, lookahead = lookahead, next(toks, None)
            return True

    def expr():
        left = term()
        while accept('PLUS', 'MINUS'):
            left = BinOp(current.value, left)
            left.right = term()
        return left

    def term():
        left = factor()
        while accept('TIMES', 'DIVIDE'):
            left = BinOp(current.value, left)
            left.right = factor()
        return left

    def factor():
        if accept('NUMBER'):
            return Number(int(current.value))
        else:
            raise SyntaxError()
    return expr()


class NodeVisitor:
    def visit(self, node):
        stack = [self.genvisit(node)]
        ret = None
        while stack:
            try:
                node = stack[-1].send(ret)
                stack.append(self.genvisit(node))
                ret = None
            except StopIteration as e:
                stack.pop()
                ret = e.value
        return ret

    def genvisit(self, node):
        ret = getattr(self, 'visit_' + type(node).__name__)(node)
        if isinstance(ret, types.GeneratorType):
            ret = yield from ret
        return ret

class Evaluator(NodeVisitor):
    def visit_Number(self, node):
        return node.value

    def visit_BinOp(self, node):
        leftval = yield node.left
        rightval = yield node.right
        if node.op == '+':
            return leftval + rightval
        elif node.op == '-':
            return leftval - rightval
        elif node.op == '*':
            return leftval * rightval
        elif node.op == '/':
            return leftval / rightval

def evaluate(exp):
    toks = tokenize(exp)
    tree = parse(toks)
    return Evaluator().visit(tree)


exp = '2 * 3 + 5 / 2'
print(evaluate(exp))
exp = '+'.join([str(x) for x in range(10000)])
print(evaluate(exp))

output:

python3 compiler.py
8.5
49995000

Context manager and generator

>>> import contextlib
>>> @contextlib.contextmanager
... def mylist():
...     try:
...         l = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
...         yield l
...     finally:
...         print("exit scope")
...
>>> with mylist() as l:
...   print(l)
...
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
exit scope

What @contextmanager actually doing?

# ref: PyCon 2014 - David Beazley
# define a context manager class

class GeneratorCM(object):

    def __init__(self,gen):
        self._gen = gen

    def __enter__(self):
        return next(self._gen)

    def __exit__(self, *exc_info):
        try:
            if exc_info[0] is None:
                next(self._gen)
            else:
                self._gen.throw(*exc_info)
            raise RuntimeError
        except StopIteration:
            return True
        except:
            raise

# define a decorator
def contextmanager(func):
    def run(*a, **k):
        return GeneratorCM(func(*a, **k))
    return run

# example of context manager
@contextmanager
def mylist():
    try:
        l = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
        yield l
    finally:
        print("exit scope")

with mylist() as l:
    print(l)

output:

$ python ctx.py
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
exit scope

profile code block

>>> import time
>>> @contextmanager
... def profile(msg):
...     try:
...         s = time.time()
...         yield
...     finally:
...         e = time.time()
...         print('{} cost time: {}'.format(msg, e - s))
...
>>> with profile('block1'):
...     time.sleep(1)
...
block1 cost time: 1.00105595589
>>> with profile('block2'):
...     time.sleep(3)
...
block2 cost time: 3.00104284286

yield from and __iter__

>>> class FakeGen:
...     def __iter__(self):
...         n = 0
...         while True:
...             yield n
...             n += 1
...     def __reversed__(self):
...         n = 9527
...         while True:
...            yield n
...            n -= 1
...
>>> def spam():
...     yield from FakeGen()
...
>>> s = spam()
>>> next(s)
0
>>> next(s)
1
>>> next(s)
2
>>> next(s)
3
>>> def reversed_spam():
...     yield from reversed(FakeGen())
...
>>> g = reversed_spam()
>>> next(g)
9527
>>> next(g)
9526
>>> next(g)
9525

yield from == await expression

# "await" include in pyhton3.5
import asyncio
import socket

# set socket and event loop
loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
host = 'localhost'
port = 5566
sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM,0)
sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR,1)
sock.setblocking(False)
sock.bind((host, port))
sock.listen(10)

@asyncio.coroutine
def echo_server():
    while True:
        conn, addr = yield from loop.sock_accept(sock)
        loop.create_task(handler(conn))

@asyncio.coroutine
def handler(conn):
    while True:
        msg = yield from loop.sock_recv(conn, 1024)
        if not msg:
            break
        yield from loop.sock_sendall(conn, msg)
    conn.close()

# equal to
async def echo_server():
    while True:
        conn, addr = await loop.sock_accept(sock)
        loop.create_task(handler(conn))

async def handler(conn):
    while True:
        msg = await loop.sock_recv(conn, 1024)
        if not msg:
            break
        await loop.sock_sendall(conn, msg)
    conn.close()

loop.create_task(echo_server())
loop.run_forever()

output: (bash 1)

$ nc localhost 5566
Hello
Hello

output: (bash 2)

$ nc localhost 5566
World
World

Closure in Python - using generator

# nonlocal version
>>> def closure():
...     x = 5566
...     def inner_func():
...         nonlocal x
...         x += 1
...         return x
...     return inner_func
...
>>> c = closure()
>>> c()
5567
>>> c()
5568
>>> c()
5569

# class version
>>> class Closure:
...     def __init__(self):
...         self._x = 5566
...     def __call__(self):
...         self._x += 1
...         return self._x
...
>>> c = Closure()
>>> c()
5567
>>> c()
5568
>>> c()
5569

# generator version (best)
>>> def closure_gen():
...     x = 5566
...     while True:
...         x += 1
...         yield x
...
>>> g = closure_gen()
>>> next(g)
5567
>>> next(g)
5568
>>> next(g)
5569

Implement a simple scheduler

# idea: write an event loop(scheduler)
>>> def fib(n):
...     if n <= 2:
...         return 1
...     return fib(n-1) + fib(n-2)
...
>>> def g_fib(n):
...     for x in range(1, n + 1):
...         yield fib(x)
...
>>> from collections import deque
>>> t = [g_fib(3), g_fib(5)]
>>> q = deque()
>>> q.extend(t)
>>> def run():
...     while q:
...         try:
...             t = q.popleft()
...             print(next(t))
...             q.append(t)
...         except StopIteration:
...             print("Task done")
...
>>> run()
1
1
1
1
2
2
Task done
3
5
Task done

Simple round-robin with blocking

# ref: PyCon 2015 - David Beazley
# skill: using task and wait queue

from collections import deque
from select import select
import socket

tasks = deque()
w_read = {}
w_send = {}

def run():
    while any([tasks, w_read, w_send]):
        while not tasks:
            # polling tasks
            can_r, can_s,_ = select(w_read, w_send, [])
            for _r in can_r:
                tasks.append(w_read.pop(_r))
            for _w in can_s:
                tasks.append(w_send.pop(_w))
        try:
            task = tasks.popleft()
            why,what = next(task)
            if why == 'recv':
                w_read[what] = task
            elif why == 'send':
                w_send[what] = task
            else:
                raise RuntimeError
        except StopIteration:
            pass

def server():
    host = ('localhost',5566)
    sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
    sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
    sock.bind(host)
    sock.listen(5)
    while True:
        # tell scheduler want block
        yield 'recv', sock
        conn,addr = sock.accept()
        tasks.append(client_handler(conn))

def client_handler(conn):
    while True:
        # tell scheduler want block
        yield 'recv', conn
        msg = conn.recv(1024)
        if not msg:
            break
        # tell scheduler want block
        yield 'send', conn
        conn.send(msg)
    conn.close()

tasks.append(server())
run()

simple round-robin with blocking and non-blocking

# this method will cause blocking hunger
from collections import deque
from select import select
import socket

tasks = deque()
w_read = {}
w_send = {}

def run():
    while any([tasks, w_read, w_send]):
        while not tasks:
            # polling tasks
            can_r,can_s,_ = select(w_read, w_send,[])
            for _r in can_r:
                tasks.append(w_read.pop(_r))
            for _w in can_s:
                tasks.append(w_send.pop(_w))
        try:
            task = tasks.popleft()
            why,what = next(task)
            if why == 'recv':
                w_read[what] = task
            elif why == 'send':
                w_send[what] = task
            elif why == 'continue':
                print(what)
                tasks.append(task)
            else:
                raise RuntimeError
        except StopIteration:
            pass

def fib(n):
    if n <= 2:
        return 1
    return fib(n-1) + fib(n-2)

def g_fib(n):
    for x in range(1, n + 1):
        yield 'continue', fib(x)

tasks.append(g_fib(15))

def server():
    host = ('localhost',5566)
    sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_STREAM)
    sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_REUSEADDR, 1)
    sock.bind(host)
    sock.listen(5)
    while True:
        yield 'recv', sock
        conn,addr = sock.accept()
        tasks.append(client_handler(conn))

def client_handler(conn):
    while True:
        yield 'recv', conn
        msg = conn.recv(1024)
        if not msg:
            break
        yield 'send', conn
        conn.send(msg)
    conn.close()

tasks.append(server())
run()

Asynchronous Generators

# PEP 525
#
# Need python-3.6 or above

>>> import asyncio
>>> async def slow_gen(n, t):
...     for x in range(n):
...         await asyncio.sleep(t)
...         yield x
...
>>> async def task(n):
...     async for x in slow_gen(n, 0.1):
...         print(x)
...
>>> loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
>>> loop.run_until_complete(task(3))
0
1
2

Asynchronous generators can have try..finally blocks

# Need python-3.6 or above

>>> import asyncio
>>> async def agen(t):
...     try:
...         await asyncio.sleep(t)
...         yield 1 / 0
...     finally:
...         print("finally part")
...
>>> async def main(t=1):
...     try:
...         g = agen(t)
...         await g.__anext__()
...     except Exception as e:
...         print(repr(e))
...
>>> loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
>>> loop.run_until_complete(main(1))
finally part
ZeroDivisionError('division by zero',)

send value and throw exception into async generator

# Need python-3.6 or above

>>> import asyncio
>>> async def agen(n, t=0.1):
...     try:
...         for x in range(n):
...             await asyncio.sleep(t)
...             val = yield x
...             print(f'get val: {val}')
...     except RuntimeError as e:
...         await asyncio.sleep(t)
...         yield repr(e)
...
>>> async def main(n):
...     g = agen(n)
...     ret = await g.asend(None) + await g.asend('foo')
...     print(ret)
...     ret = await g.athrow(RuntimeError('Get RuntimeError'))
...     print(ret)
...
>>> loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
>>> loop.run_until_complete(main(5))
get val: foo
1
RuntimeError('Get RuntimeError',)

Simple async round-robin

# Need python-3.6 or above

>>> import asyncio
>>> from collections import deque
>>> async def agen(n, t=0.1):
...     for x in range(n):
...         await asyncio.sleep(t)
...         yield x
...
>>> async def main():
...     q = deque([agen(3), agen(5)])
...     while q:
...         try:
...             g = q.popleft()
...             ret = await g.__anext__()
...             print(ret)
...             q.append(g)
...         except StopAsyncIteration:
...             pass
...
>>> loop.run_until_complete(main())
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
4

Async generator get better performance than async iterator

# Need python-3.6 or above

>>> import time
>>> import asyncio
>>> class AsyncIter:
...     def __init__(self, n):
...         self._n = n
...     def __aiter__(self):
...         return self
...     async def __anext__(self):
...         ret = self._n
...         if self._n == 0:
...             raise StopAsyncIteration
...         self._n -= 1
...         return ret
...
>>> async def agen(n):
...     for i in range(n):
...         yield i
...
>>> async def task_agen(n):
...     s = time.time()
...     async for _ in agen(n): pass
...     cost = time.time() - s
...     print(f"agen cost time: {cost}")
...
>>> async def task_aiter(n):
...     s = time.time()
...     async for _ in AsyncIter(n): pass
...     cost = time.time() - s
...     print(f"aiter cost time: {cost}")
...
>>> n = 10 ** 7
>>> loop = asyncio.get_event_loop()
>>> loop.run_until_complete(task_agen(n))
agen cost time: 1.2698817253112793
>>> loop.run_until_complete(task_aiter(n))
aiter cost time: 4.168368101119995

Asynchronous Comprehensions

# PEP 530
#
# Need python-3.6 or above

>>> import asyncio
>>> async def agen(n, t):
...     for x in range(n):
...         await asyncio.sleep(t)
...         yield x
>>> async def main():
...     ret = [x  async for x in agen(5, 0.1)]
...     print(*ret)
...     ret = [x async for x in agen(5, 0.1) if x < 3]
...     print(*ret)
...     ret = [x if x < 3 else -1 async for x in agen(5, 0.1)]
...     print(*ret)
...     ret = {f'{x}': x async for x in agen(5, 0.1)}
...     print(ret)

>>> loop.run_until_complete(main())
0 1 2 3 4
0 1 2
0 1 2 -1 -1
{'0': 0, '1': 1, '2': 2, '3': 3, '4': 4}

# await in Comprehensions

>>> async def foo(t):
...     await asyncio.sleep(t)
...     return "foo"
...
>>> async def bar(t):
...     await asyncio.sleep(t)
...     return "bar"
...
>>> async def baz(t):
...     await asyncio.sleep(t)
...     return "baz"
...
>>> async def gen(*f, t=0.1):
...     for x in f:
...         await asyncio.sleep(t)
...         yield x
...
>>> async def await_simple_task():
...     ret = [await f(0.1) for f in [foo, bar]]
...     print(ret)
...     ret = {await f(0.1) for f in [foo, bar]}
...     print(ret)
...     ret = {f.__name__: await f(0.1) for f in [foo, bar]}
...     print(ret)
...
>>> async def await_other_task():
...     ret = [await f(0.1) for f in [foo, bar] if await baz(1)]
...     print(ret)
...     ret = {await f(0.1) for f in [foo, bar] if await baz(1)}
...     print(ret)
...     ret = {f.__name__: await f(0.1) for f in [foo, bar] if await baz(1)}
...     print(ret)
...
>>> async def await_aiter_task():
...     ret = [await f(0.1) async for f in gen(foo, bar)]
...     print(ret)
...     ret = {await f(0.1) async for f in gen(foo, bar)}
...     print(ret)
...     ret = {f.__name__: await f(0.1) async for f in gen(foo, bar)}
...     print(ret)
...     ret = [await f(0.1) async for f in gen(foo, bar) if await baz(1)]
...     print(ret)
...     ret = {await f(0.1) async for f in gen(foo, bar) if await baz(1)}
...     print(ret)
...     ret = {f.__name__: await f(0.1) async for f in gen(foo, bar) if await baz(1)}
...
>>> import asyncio
>>> asyncio.get_event_loop()
>>> loop.run_until_complete(await_simple_task())
['foo', 'bar']
{'bar', 'foo'}
{'foo': 'foo', 'bar': 'bar'}
>>> loop.run_until_complete(await_other_task())
['foo', 'bar']
{'bar', 'foo'}
{'foo': 'foo', 'bar': 'bar'}
>>> loop.run_until_complete(await_gen_task())
['foo', 'bar']
{'bar', 'foo'}
{'foo': 'foo', 'bar': 'bar'}
['foo', 'bar']
{'bar', 'foo'}
{'foo': 'foo', 'bar': 'bar'}